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中国当代著名建筑师吴良镛

2014-2-12 18:01| 发布者: ccbuild| 查看: 39301| 评论: 0

摘要: 基本信息: Basic Information: 姓名:吴良镛 Name: WU Liangyong 性别:男 Gender:Male 出生日期:1922年5月7日 Date of Birth: May 7, 1922 工作单位:清华大学建筑学院、人居环境研究中心 Work place: School o ...

基本信息:

Basic Information:

姓名:吴良镛

Name: WU Liangyong

性别:男

Gender:Male

出生日期:1922年5月7日

Date of Birth: May 7, 1922

工作单位:清华大学建筑学院、人居环境研究中心

Work place: School of Architecture of Tsinghua University

职务职称:教授、所长

Post and title:Professor,Director of the Institute

执业注册情况:国家一级注册建筑师

Professional certificate: First Class Registered Architect

邮寄地址:清华大学建筑学院建筑与城市研究所

Address: Institute of Architectural and Urban Studies, School of Architecture of Tsinghua University

教育和工作经历:

Educational Background and Working Experience:

1944年毕业于国立中央大学建筑系。1946年协助梁思成创建清华大学建筑系。1949年毕业于美国匡溪艺术学院获硕士学位。1950年回国后在清华大学建筑系任教至今,历任副系主任和系主任;1984年筹建清华大学建筑与城市研究所,任所长;1995年筹建清华大学人居环境研究中心,任主任。1980年当选中国科学院学部委员(院士),1995年当选中国工程院院士。

Graduated in 1944 from Department of Architecture of National Central University, Wu Liangyong assisted Liang Sicheng in founding the Department of Architecture in Tsinghua University in 1946. Obtained his master degree in Cranbrook Academy of Arts in 1949, he came back to China in 1950 and became a faculty in the Department of Architecture in Tsinghua University,and till now he has been the vice dean and dean of the department. In 1984, he founded the Institute of Architectural and Urban Studies and became the director of the institute. He was selected as committee members of Chinese Academy of Sciences (academician) in 1980, and academician in Chinese Academy of Engineering in 1995.

1953年以来参与创建中国建筑学会、中国城市科学会、中国城市规划学会,曾任中国建筑学会副理事长、中国城市科学研究会副理事长、中国城市规划学会理事长,以及国际建筑师协会副主席、世界人居学会主席等职。

Since 1953, WU Liangyong was one of the members founding Architectural Society of China, Chinese Society for Urban Studies and China Urban Planning Society. He ever undertaken the vice president of Architectural Society of China, the vice president of Chinese Society for Urban Studies, the president of China Urban Planning Society, the vice president of Union of International Architects, the president of  World Society of Ekistics, etc.

   主持参与多项重大工程项目,如北京图书馆新馆设计(最后入选方案即“五老方案”)、天安门广场扩建规划设计、广西桂林中心区规划、孔子研究院规划设计、中央美术学院规划设计、南通博物馆设计、江苏省南京市金陵红楼梦博物苑设计。其中,北京市菊儿胡同危旧房改建试点工程获1992年度的亚洲建筑师协会金质奖和世界人居奖,2000年获得国家建设部颁布的首届“梁思成建筑奖”;孔子研究院工程获2006年中国建筑学会建筑创作优秀一等奖;中央美术学院规划设计获教育部优秀建筑设计一等奖。

  He was one of the members designing multiple major projects, such as the design of the new Beijing Library (the selected scheme at last is the Five Old Schemes), the design of the extension planning of the Tiananmen Square, the planning of the central area of Guilin, Guangxi, the design of planning of Confucius Institute, the design of planning of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, the design of Nantong Museum and the Jinling Museum of Dream of the Red Chamber, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, wherein the pilot engineering of reconstruction of dilapidated buildings in Ju’er Hutong, Beijing city was awarded with the golden prize of Architects Regional Council Asia and the World Habitat Award in 1992, and the 1st Liang Sicheng Architectural Award issued by the national ministry of construction in 2000, the engineering of the Confucius Institute was awarded with the first prize of outstanding buildings of Architectural Society of China in 2006, and the design of planning of the Central Academy of Fine Arts was awarded with the first prize of outstanding building design of Ministry of Education.

个人建筑理论、设计创新、创作心得等:

Personal Construction Theory, Design Innovation, Creation Idea, etc.:

吴良镛长期从事建筑与城乡规划基础理论、工程实践和学科发展研究,先后发表广义建筑学理论,创立了人居环境科学及其理论框架。在城市设计与建筑设计实践中,吴良镛重视对中国城市设计遗产的弘扬与运用,重视建筑文化内涵的挖掘,并努力实践广义建筑学中“三位一体”,即建筑、城市、园林结合的设计思想。

Wu Liangyong is engaged in the basic theory of building and urban and rural planning, engineering practice and study of subject-specific development for a long term, sequentially reports generalized architecture theory, and creates the sciences of human settlement and the theoretical frame. In the practice of city design and building design, Wu Liangyong focuses on the popularization and application of the heritage of Chinese city design and the development of the connotation of building culture, and tries best to carry out the trinity of the generalized architecture, i.e., the design idea of combination of buildings, city and gardens.

1999年在担任国际建协第20次大会科学委员会主席时起草的《北京宪章》中指出:“美好的人居环境与美好的人类社会共同创造。”将环境建设与社会进步统一起来。

When undertaking the president of the scientific committee of the 20th conference of UIA in 1999, he drafted Beijing Charter in which it pointed out the splendid inhabitation environment and the splendid human society are created together. It unifies environment construction and social progress together.

个性化点评:(媒体或国内外同行对个人的评价)

Personalized comments: (comments of the media or the same industry at home and abroad)

1989年国际文化理事会给他颁发荣誉证书,确认他的“杰出艺术事业及对人类艺术遗产有价值的贡献”。1990年5 月他被美国建筑师协会授予荣誉资深会员,被认为是“新中国建筑与城市规划先行者之一;杰出的建筑教育家;著名的水彩画家;多产的作家。”国际建协前主席斯古塔斯赞誉他是“中国建筑领域在世界上的代表,发挥着积极而重要的影响”。

  In 1989, the International Cultural Council issued a certificate of honor to him, and recognized his outstanding art career and the contribution to the heritage of human art. In May, 1990, he was honored as the honorable senior member by AIA, and recognized as one of the pioneers of buildings and city planning of new China, the outstanding architecture educationist, the famous watercolor painter and the productive painter. Sgoutas who is the former president of UIA praised him as the representative of the Chinese building field in the world, who plays positive and significant influences.

代表作品介绍:

Introduction of Representative Works:

1、  菊儿胡同新四合院住宅设计

1.    Design of residence of new courtyard houses in Ju’er Hutong.

地点:北京东城区南锣鼓巷菊儿胡同

Site: Ju’er Hutong, Nanluogu Alley, Dongcheng District, Beijing

业主单位:北京市东城区房屋管理局

Owner unit: Housing Authority of Dongcheng District, Beijing

用地面积:2090㎡(一期);1.14公顷(二期)

Land area: 2090㎡(1st phase);;1.14 hectares (2nd phase)

总建筑面积:2760㎡(一期);17897.33㎡(二期)

Total building area: 2760㎡(first phase);17897.33㎡(second phase)

容 积 率:1.35(一期);1.71(二期)

FAR: 1.35(first phase);1.71(second phase)

设计时间:1987年

Design time: 1987

竣工时间:1993年(二期)

Completion time: 1993 (2nd phase)

主创人员:吴良镛、卢连生、刘文洁、刘燕

Main staff: Wu Liangyong, Lu Liansheng, Liu Wenjie, Liu Yan

建筑层数:3层

Building storey: 3

建筑高度:11.22米

Building height: 11.22m

设计最初是对于北京旧城传统格局的探索,1979年形成了居住区整治的“有机更新”和“新四合院”住宅设计方案的思路。之后,又进行了很多轮“新四合院”模式的探索,在保持旧城风貌的同时尽可能的提高其容积率,使其提高到与当时公寓住宅基本相当的程度,最终形成了一个容积率1.2,建筑密度75%的新四合院模型。1987年,该研究成果应用于北京旧城危旧房改造,并选定了菊儿胡同作为住宅调查及居民参与改建研究的试点。这项工程开创了在北京城中心城区改造更新的一种新途径,传统的四合院住宅格局得以保留并加以改造,避免了全部拆除旧城内历史性衰败住宅,并探索了一种历史城市中住宅建设集资和规划的新途径。联合国副秘书长、人居署执行主任约翰•克劳斯指出:“吴良镛在中国进行的广泛的人居环境科学研究和实践,成功解决了如何保持传统文化、地方特色和社会价值观等一直悬而未决的关键性问题。”

The design is originated from the exploration of the traditional pattern of the old Beijing city. The idea of design schemes of residential buildings of organic renewal and new courtyard houses for renovating the residential area was formed in 1979, and then many times of the exploration on the mode of new courtyard house were carried out. The style and features of the old city are formed, and meanwhile, it tried best to improve its FAR which was basically equal to that of the modern flat, and at last, the model of new courtyard house of which the FAR was 1.2 and the building density was 75% was formed. In 1987, the study achievement was applied for reforming the dangerous and old houses of the old Beijing city, and Ju’er Hutong was selected as the pilot site for housing investigation and the reconstruction study with resident’s participation. This project created a new way for the reconstruction and renewal in the central Beijing city. The pattern of the traditional courtyard house was reserved and reformed, and it prevented all historical dilapidated houses in the old city from being demolished, and developed a new way for raising money and planning for the house in the historical city. John Klaus, who is the vice secretary general of the United Nations and the executive director of human settlements programme, pointed out the scientific study and practice on the human settlement widely carried out in China by Wu Liangyong successfully solved the unsettled key issues of how to reserve the traditional culture, local characteristics, social value, etc.

2、  孔子研究院

2.Confucius Institute

地点:山东曲阜

Site: Qufu, Shandong

业主单位:曲阜孔子研究院

Owner unit: Qufu Confucius Institute

用地面积:9.5公顷

Land area: 9.5 hectares

总建筑面积:2万平方米

Total building area: 20-thousand square meters

设计时间:1996-1998(一期工程);2005-2007年(二期三期工程)

Design time: 1996-1998(1st phase);2005-2007年(2nd phase, 3rd phase)

竣工时间:1999年(一期工程);2007年(二期工程);2009年(三期工程)

Completion time: 1999(1st phase);2007(2nd phase);2009(3rd phase)

主创人员:吴良镛、卢连生、单军

Main staff: Wu Liangyong, Lu Liansheng, Shan Jun

建筑层数:4层

Building storey: 4

建筑高度:28.6米

Building height: 28.6m

1999年完成的山东曲阜孔子研究院首期工程,一方面弘扬孔子文化,通过对孔子学说的再解释使其在当代发挥出更大作用;另一方面吸收儒家思想和传统文化精华作为设计的理念和灵感的源泉,并通过“抽象继承”等方法弘扬中国的建筑文化。吴良镛在这一工程中坚持从城市设计的角度研究建筑设计,从旧城的十字花瓣布局到新城十字花布局,并通过建筑设计,发掘礼制建筑、书院形式等文化内涵,推进曲阜城市设计。

The 1st phase of the Confucius Institute, Qufu, Shandong, which was completed in 1999 popularizes the Confucius culture, and explains the doctrine of Confucius to make it display a greater function, and on the other hand, it absorbs Confucianism and the traditional cultural essence as the idea of design and the source for inspiration, and also popularizes Chinese architecture culture by the methods of abstract inheritance, etc. In this project, Wu Liangyong insisted the way of studying the building design from the perspective of city design (from the pattern of cross petals of the old city to the pattern of cruciate flower of the new city), and promoted the design of Qufu city by building design and developing the cultural connotations of ritual buildings, academy of classical learning, etc.

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